Free-market anarchism, or market anarchism, includes several branches of anarchism that advocate an economic system based on voluntary market interactions without walter block bitcoin news involvement of the state. On the other hand, people who identify as anarcho-capitalists stress the legitimacy and priority of private property, describing it as an integral component of individual rights and a free market economy. Mutualism began in 18th-century English and French labour movements before taking an anarchist form associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in France and others in the United States. Mutualist anarchism is concerned with reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation, and credit and currency reform.
Market anarchists state diverse views concerning the path to elimination of the state. Rothbard endorses the use of any tactic to bring about market anarchy so long as it does not contradict his libertarian moral principles. Benjamin Tucker abandoned the natural rights conception of property rights in free-market anarchism for a Stirnerite egoism. Classical liberal John Locke argues that, as people apply their labor to unowned resources, they make those resources their property.
For Locke, there are only two legitimate ways people can acquire new property: by mixing their labor with unowned resources or by voluntary trade for created goods. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the first self-identified anarchist, supported a left-wing market anarchism called mutualism. Another contemporary school of left-libertarianism is associated with scholars such as Kevin Carson, Roderick T. Left-libertarians favor worker solidarity vis-à-vis bosses, support poor people’s squatting on government or abandoned property, and prefer that corporate privileges be repealed before the regulatory restrictions on how those privileges may be exercised. Contemporary free-market left-libertarians also show markedly more sympathy than mainstream or paleolibertarians towards various cultural movements which challenge non-governmental relations of power. Vallentyne left-libertarianism as the roots of that tradition are sketched in The Origins of Left-Libertarianism.
The doyen of modern American market-oriented libertarianism, Austrian School economist Murray Rothbard, was initially an enthusiastic partisan of the Old Right, particularly because of its general opposition to war and imperialism. Rothbard himself ultimately broke with the left, allying himself instead with the burgeoning paleoconservative movement. A well-known critique of free-market anarchism is by Robert Nozick, who argued that a competitive legal system would evolve toward a monopoly government—even without violating individuals rights in the process. The philosophy of “anarcho-capitalism” dreamed up by the “libertarian” New Right, has nothing to do with Anarchism as known by the Anarchist movement proper. In fact, few anarchists would accept the ‘anarcho-capitalists’ into the anarchist camp since they do not share a concern for economic equality and social justice, Their self-interested, calculating market men would be incapable of practising voluntary co-operation and mutual aid.
Is “anarcho”-capitalism a type of anarchism? Within Libertarianism, Rothbard represents a minority perspective that actually argues for the total elimination of the state. However Rothbard’s claim as an anarchist is quickly voided when it is shown that he only wants an end to the public state. Editor’s note in “Taxation: Voluntary or Compulsory”. Archived from the original on 2010-12-28. Wilbur, Shawn, 2006, “More from the 1826 “Mutualist”? Proudhon, Solution to the Social Problem, ed.