Some are interested in learning Greek in order to read some of the Classical authors, and want to work on their own at their own speed, rather than take an Introductory term or year course in the language. What books will you need after working through this Grammar? I suggest going right into real text, and merayakan tahun baru haramkah forex could be better than Homer. The excellent edition of “Iliad Book I” by P.
Greek text, no clumsy notes at the back and Vocab. Others working in the field of Linguistics are interested in the structure of a distant, highly inflected language like Greek, and wonder how it compares with Latin, a Romanic language or their own English. For people interested mainly in the linguistics of Greek, I have printed the basic classes of Greek grammar in Roman letters first, so the survey of Greek can be done quickly just the basic phonemic information laid out clearly. Odysseus, could manage to deal with real life situations realistically and above all, could survive. What our Old and New Testaments have urged on Christians for millennia as a “way of life”, is what Homer pressed into the subconscious of the youth of Greece for an equal range of centuries. In this educational process, Homer stands out as a poet who represents the ultimate of precise configuration, for whom the exactness and clarity of each line is essential.
More than half of Homer is virtual drama with men speaking to men precisely, in a tough and exacting world. Even the famous figures of speech are no more than momentary shifts of sight, as one looks away to the dawn arising, or remembers the words of an ancient elder for a second. Vergil internalizes everything, hints and intuits continually while telling the story on another level. He in forever and magically internal, writing as if between the lines, a great art indeed, but no Homer in any sense. Vergil himself said that lifting a line from Homer is harder than stealing the club from Heracles.
Homer has a large vocabulary but words must be learned one by one, and that is less of a problem than the intricate structure of the inflectional grammar of Greek. I have suggested on the web in an enthusiastic and protreptic article Reading Homer , that Homer is the best doorway into Greek. Latin and Greek prose imitating the manner of Classical authors. This means putting Rules and Exercises into lessons at every stage of the learning, and does not address the more important matter of getting a Reading Knowledge of the language. In my book “The Intelligent Person’s Guide to Latin” I approach Latin “Descriptively”, describing what the reader will have to know in order to read an ancient text the way he might read modern French or Spanish, without Translation and especially without word for word Parsing. Since the standard introductions to ancient Greek proceed on a “lesson format” system, it is usually hard to get a picture of the whole of Greek grammar in a synoptic view. It is assumed that after you have gone through a term or a year of lessons, you will have a sense of the shape of the whole, but the segmentation of the grammar to fit into lesson-format usually leaves the learner with a fading and patchy memory of the system.
This highly compressed little manual is intended to give an overall view of Greek Grammar without examples and exercises. Then each section will correlate with some point on the larger schema, and bit by bit you can fill in the detailed grammatical information you need, all in the right places in the synoptic view of the system. If you need more information you can go to any Greek textbook, you can even use one of the many from the last century, scanning the individual lessons for actual FORMS, and ignoring much of the examples and translation exercises, which are not necessary at the start. As soon as you have coursed through any of the textbooks, and reviewed this paper putting things into a continuous perspective, you will want to start to read a genuine and authentic original Greek test. If you are cautious by nature and want to go slow and sure, you can take a first year course in Attic Grammar, but if you are working without a course or teacher and want a faster pace, I believe you will do as well to go through my overview below, and then have a quick dash at reading the Iliad while the structure of the language is still in your mind in one piece. I repeat: The trouble with the “lessons” textbook approach is that the grammar is segmented into little pieces, so you don’t get a grasp of the whole layout until the course is done, by which time the early parts of probably in a dim and distant patch of your memory.
Here I will try to put it all together. First, the letters are different from the Roman characters used in many of the languages of Western Europe and the rest of the English speaking world, and further reinforced by the use of English with Roman characters as the new lingua franca of the computer world. Before approaching the grammatical classes, you will find information about the Greek alphabet, its shapes and sounds, and some suggestions about possible confessions for a Roman font reader. For the linguistic student attending primarily to the shape of a language employing a complex inflectional system, this can be deferred to later, of course. But there are other things in this Homeric display page , which are actually unnecessary for reading and in good measure quite meaningless. By setting these aside, we can proceed to the “grammar” of Greek more adroitly, but I must offer some explanation first. The little apostrophe-like mark, like a high comma facing left, which you see at the start of many words, is called a “smooth breathing”, a curious terms which means that at that point you do NOT have a rough breathing.